中美貿易戰之下,中國藝術品及古董逃離川普關稅之網

中美貿易戰之下,中國藝術品及古董逃離川普關稅之網



美國總統唐納川普宣布將從9月24日開始,對價值2000億美元的中國商品徵收10%的關稅後,美中之間的貿易戰繼續上升。
然而,以美國為基地的藝術品和古董經銷商卻鬆了一口氣。週一(9月17日),美國貿易代表辦公室發布了一份經過關稅的進口貨物修訂清單-明年將達到25%-不包括中國製造的藝術品和古董

總的來說,更新的清單包含早先提出的6,031個關稅細目中的5,745個全部或部分。7月10日公佈的關稅清單包括中國畫,繪畫,粉彩,版畫,石版畫和原創雕塑以及“超過100年的古董”。除了藝術品之外,汽車座椅,自行車頭盔和一些消費電子產品(如智能手錶和藍牙設備)也被刪除。

「藝術的自由交流對所有人都有利,並可能提供相互理解的途徑,從而在其他方面實現更好的關係。」一位專門從事中國藝術和古董的紐約經銷商James Lally說道。他補充說:「知道美國收藏家和經銷商將可持續進入國際市場,並能夠自由地歡迎來自世界各地的藝術愛好者,這真是令人鬆一口氣。」

中國當代藝術家張曉剛九月在紐約佩斯畫廊的作品完售。© Zhang Xiaogang. Courtesy of Pace Gallery

在川普政府於6月宣布原始公告後,Lally強烈公開主張藝術品經銷商和收藏家反對提議的關稅。主要的拍賣行也對貿易制裁可能對美國藝術市場造成的潛在經濟損失直言不諱,特別是當收藏家的興趣一直在提升時。在一封給The Art Newspaper的電子郵件中,佳士得聲稱:現在的情勢,對中國藝術品,古董和收藏品課徵關稅可能對美國收藏家,文化機構和企業造成失衡的傷害,並且會無法有效平衡貿易逆差。」

根據美國貿易代表辦公室的說法,在搜集整理六週期間的評論、公聽會證詞之後,對擬議清單進行了修改。該機構表示,通過一個完整的程序來嚴格審查評論和證詞,而決定全部或部分刪除原始提議清單中的297個關稅細目。

總部位於華盛頓的Bailey&Ehrenberg律師事務所,專門從事文化藝術品交易的律師彼得·湯帕(Peter Tompa),反對川普在八月份聽證會上限制與中國貿易的關稅措施,並表示此措施對美國與歐洲經銷商的傷害遠大於中國經銷商。

紐約的收藏家對亞洲藝術,特別是中國藝術的興趣近年來快速提升。唐朝的佛像在蘇富比亞洲專拍上,以遠高於預估價的430萬美元拍出。

根據美國國際貿易委員會的數據,2017年來自中國的古物進口總額為1.072億美元,而繪畫,素描,粉彩和其他原創藝術品總額為1.145億美元。

「對於藝術品徵收關稅將是史無前例的」Tompa說道 :「對他們徵稅不僅會對美國產生影響,在英國,歐洲和亞洲,特別是日本的盟友的小企業和文化交流也造成附帶損害。」他並補充表示,他們可以做的,只是幫助推動中國政府努力將中國藝術品重新引渡回中國以及與其政府相關的拍賣行。

藝術品和古董在川普的貿易制裁下能安逸多久仍然存在疑問。在修訂商品清單後不到24小時,中國就對美國進口600億美元的進口產品徵收關稅。美國總統威脅要對2760億美元的商品徵收更多關稅,這意味著美國對中國商品徵收的關稅,將達到世界貿易總額的4%左右。


Chinese art and antiquities spared from Trumps tariffs

Auction houses and art dealers express ‘relief’ even as the US-China trade war escalates

The trade war between the US and China continues to rise in pitch after President Donald Trump announced that a 10% tariff would be imposed on $200bn worth of Chinese goods starting 24 September. US-based art and antiquities dealers, however, are breathing a small sigh of relief. On Monday (17 September), the Office of the United States Trade Representative issued a revised list of imported goods subject to the tariff—which is due to go up to 25% by next year—that no longer includes Chinese-made art and antiquities.

In total, the updated list contains 5,745 full or partial lines of the 6,031 tariff lines that were earlier proposed. The tariff list published on 10 July included Chinese paintings, drawings, pastels, prints, lithographs and original sculptures as well as “antiques of an age exceeding 100 years”. Car seats, bicycle helmets and some consumer electronics products such as smart watches and Bluetooth devices were among the removed items in addition to works of art.

“The free exchange of art is beneficial to all and may provide an avenue toward mutual understanding leading to better relations on other fronts as well,” says James Lally, a New York-based dealer specialising in Chinese art and antiquities. He adds that “it is a great relief to know that [US collectors and dealers] will maintain access to the international market and will be able to freely welcome art lovers from around the world”.

Lally strongly and publicly advocated that art dealers and collectors speak out against the proposed tariffs after the Trump administration’s original announcement was made in June. Major auction houses, too, were outspoken about the potential economic damage the trade sanctions could wreak on the US art market, especially when collector interest has been on the rise. In an email to The Art Newspaper, Christie’s reports that its “position and that of our industry partners continues to be that tariffs on Chinese works of art, antiquities, and collectibles could result in disproportionate harm to American collectors, cultural institutions and businesses and would not be effective in balancing the trade .”

According to the Office of the United States Trade Representative, changes to the proposed list were made after the interagency Section 301 Committee received comments over a six-week period and testimony during a six-day public hearing held in Washington, DC on 23 August. The agency said it “engaged in a thorough process to rigorously examine the comments and testimony and, as a result, determined to fully or partially remove 297 tariff lines from the original proposed list”.

Peter Tompa, a lawyer specialising in the trade of cultural artefacts at the Washington-based firm Bailey & Ehrenberg, argued against Trump’s tariff measures to curtail trade with China at the August hearing, saying they would be more detrimental to US and European dealers than Chinese dealers. He says he is “thankful that USTR and the administration allowed common sense to prevail” in revising the list.

According to data from the US International Trade Commission, imports of antiquities originating from China totalled $107.2m in 2017, while paintings, drawings, pastels and other original works of art totalled $114.5m.

“Tariffs on art would be unprecedented,” Tompa says. “And to impose them here would not only cause collateral damage to American small business and cultural exchange with our allies in the UK, Europe and Asia, especially Japan.” He adds that they would have done “nothing but help promote Chinese government efforts to redirect Chinese art back to China and auction houses linked to its government”.

How long art and antiquities remain safe from Trump’s trade sanctions is still in question. Less than 24 hours after the revised list of goods was revealed, China slapped tariffs on $60bn worth of imports from the US in retaliation. Never one to be challenged, the US president threatened further tariffs on an additional $276bn of goods, which would mean duties on all Chinese imports to the US and amount to around 4% of all world trade.

https://www.theartnewspaper.com/news/chinese-art-and-antiquities-spared-from-trump-s-tariffs